Publications Archive

The Institute for Latino Studies has sponsored research and scholarship on the role of Latinos in the ongoing transformation of U.S. society overall and of Metropolitan Chicago and Northwest Indiana, in particular. Reports and policy and research briefs are available for download (in .pdf) on the following topics

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Citizenship and Civic Participation

The Politics of the Latino Church

Author: Jessica Hamar Martínez, Edwin I. Hernández Rebecca Burwell, Milagros Peña and David Sikkink

This report describes the political views and behaviors of leaders and congregants in Latino churches in Chicago. Using data from the Chicago Latino Congregations Study, conducted between 2004 and 2007, we examine the social and political views held by participants in Chicago Latino churches, the extent to which church leaders and their parishioners are involved in political activities, and whether or not church leaders influence the political participation of congregants. 

Full Article (.pdf)

The Chicago Latino Congregations Study (CLCS): Methodological Considerations

Author: Rebecca Burwell, Edwin I. Hernández , Milagros Peña, Jeffrey Smith, and David Sikkink

This report describes the methodology behind the Chicago Latino Congregations Study (CLCS). The CLCS is a multi-level study of Latino congregations in the Chicago area. Data collection was completed in 2007, and included quantitative surveys of clergy, lay leaders, and adult and youth congregants, as well as focus groups and qualitative interviews. The CLCS was designed to provide an in-depth look at various aspects of Latino congregations, their leaders and members, and their connections to other community organizations.

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Latino Immigrant Civic Engagement in the Chicago Region

Author: Magda Banda and Martha Zurita

At the very core of our society is the active participation of its members. However, not all members of our society, particularly immigrants, have access to our more official form of participation, namely voting. It is important that all have access to various forms of participation so that their voices can be heard and needs be met. This paper examines the civic participation of Latino immigrants in the metropolitan Chicago region, as well as the role of community-based organizations as facilitators for many Latino immigrants? civic engagement.

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Representing and Connecting: Immigrant-Serving Organizations in Metro Chicago

Author: Martha Zurita and Magda Banda

Have non-profit agencies kept up with metro Chicago?s population shifts? What do these demographic changes mean for non-profits in terms of meeting the needs of immigrant and disadvantaged groups? In this paper we examine several indicators, such as racial/ethnic distribution, poverty, and nativity, for both the geography and the organizations themselves as a step towards finding answers to these important questions.

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Latino/a Seminarians? Evaluations of Their Institutions? Quality and Commitment

Author: Edwin I. Hernández, Milagros Peña, Caroline Viernes Sotello Turner, Jeffrey Smith, Kari Jo Verhulst

This fifth report in a series of Latino Research@ND reports on Latinos/as and theological education investigates how Latino/a seminarians assess their schools on a variety of social, cultural, and academic factors and what this reveals about how effectively seminaries and graduate schools of theology are meeting the needs of their Latino/a students. We find that Latino/a seminarians offer positive assessments of the general climate toward diversity at their schools but are more negative about how adeptly their schools have integrated and incorporated Latino perspectives into the curriculum and academic environment. The presence of attentive, available faculty members who are sensitive and receptive to Latino theology, culture, and perspectives makes a substantial difference in Latinos/as? experience of seminary, as does the inclusion of minority perspectives into the curriculum.

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La Tercera Edad: Latinos' Pensions, Retirement and Impact on Families

Author: Karen Richman, Gia Barboza, Teresa Ghilarducci, and Wei Sun

There is a pressing need to bolster Latinos' retirement security, according to this report by the Center for Migration and Border Studies (CMBS) in the University of Notre Dame?s Institute for Latino Studies (ILS). Funded by the National Endowment for Financial Education,"La Tercera Edad: Latinos' Pensions, Retirement and Impact on Families" combines analysis of national data on pensions and financial literacy and focus group studies of Latino workers and retirees in Chicago.

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A Focus Group Study On the Effects of Retirement On Latino Families

Author: Karen Richman

This study of focus group information collected from Latino retirees and Latino working adults reveals that neither the retirees nor their extended families have sufficient income to live comfortably now, let alone to prepare for the future. They help one another adapt to these difficult conditions through informal exchanges of food, childcare, transportation, and money. Latino seniors and Latino working adults are anxious about their own and their children?s future retirement security. They want government and business policies to change in order to address this looming crisis.

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Faith and Values in Action: Religion, Politics, and Social Attitudes Among US Latinos/as

Author: Edwin I Hernández, Kenneth G. Davis, Milagros Peña, Georgian Schiopu, Jeffrey Smith, Matthew T. Loveland

Religion plays a considerable role in shaping many Americans? civic engagement and political behavior, including how they vote and what political party they prefer. Few studies have explored in great depth the extent to which this is so among Latinos/as. Analyzing the Pew Hispanic Center's 2004 National Survey of Latinos, this report attempts to shed light on how religious affiliation and regular church attendance influence Latinos/as? volunteering rates, political party identification, and positions on social and moral issues.

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What Do Black And White Residents of Metropolitan Chicago Think about Latin American and Mexican Immigrants? Findings from the Chicago-Area Survey

Author: Gia Elise Barboza, Roger Knight, Timothy Ready

In a recent research brief we reported that white and black residents of Chicago have generally positive views of immigrants, regardless of their national origin. In this issue we turn our attention to perceptions of Latin American immigrants, the largest immigrant group in Chicago.

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Promoting and Maintaining Household Ownership among Latino Immigrants

Author: Martha Argelia Martinez

In 2005 there were approximately 11.7 million Hispanic households in the United States, of which 53 percent, or 6.2 million, were formed of individuals not born here. For this reason the 2007 study of trends in Hispanic housing, the third in the series, focuses on immigrants, who are particularly underrepresented among homeowners.

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Preliminary Explorations of Latinos and Politics: Findings from the Chicago-Area Survey

Author: John A. Garcia, Rodney E. Hero

The 2004 elections underscored the current and future significance of Latinos in US politics at local, state, and national levels. Although this phenomenon has been the focus of considerable research among scholars of the American political system, how partisan and electoral patterns vary among Latinos by national origin, region, and socioeconomic status remains undefined, and a number of claims regarding the extent of participation and voting and the partisan leanings among Latinos remain under dispute.

Latino political participation—registration and voting—appears low. There is a leaning toward affiliation with the Democratic Party but not to the degree often identified in other studies. Latinos are much more likely to see the Democratic Party as more attentive to their problems than the Republican Party, but there is also a strong collective sense of no preference for either party or that neither party is well focused on Latino concerns.

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Variations in Political Involvement and Attitudes among Latinos by Place of Birth and Citizenship: Findings from the Chicago-Area Survey

Author: Timothy Ready, Roger Knight

This paper elaborates on ?Preliminary Explorations of Latinos and Politics? (Latino Research @ ND, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2007) by John Garcia and Rodney Hero, based on the Chicago-Area Survey (CAS).1 Here we further examine the findings discussed in that paper by differentiating the behavior and attitudes of US-born Latinos from those of the foreign born and those of citizens from those of noncitizens.

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Latino Civic and Community Involvement: Findings from the Chicago-Area Survey

Author: Timothy Ready, Roger Knight, Sung Chun

Nearly half of Chicago-area Latinos are involved in one or more community organizations. Church membership is by far the most commonly cited type of involvement. The foreign born are twice as likely as the US born to be church members. More than 60 percent of survey respondents believe they could have a positive impact on their community. Only 14 percent of Chicago Latinos reported working with neighbors to improve their community in the past two years, compared with 26 percent of Latinos nationally. Well over half said that they would be likely to cooperate with neighbors under certain circumstances.

Overall, survey respondents reported a slight decline in level of community involvement in recent years, more pronounced among the US born than the foreign born.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Economic Progress of US- and Foreign-Born Mexicans in Metro Chicago: Indications from the United States Census

Author: Rob Paral and Timothy Ready

Metropolitan Chicago is home to a large population of 1.1 million Mexican-origin persons,including more than 504,000 persons born in and almost 563,500 persons born outside of the United States. The socioeconomic progress of these communities is of key interest to policymakers and others interested in the overall social and economic status of the region.

This report examines two key questions involving the Mexican-origin population in the Chicago area: 1) How are Mexican immigrants progressing and 2) how are the US-born Mexican Americans fairing in comparison to the immigrants. The report uses census data to examine the standing of these populations in terms of household income, educational status, poverty levels, and homeownership rate

Full Article (.pdf)

The State of Latino Chicago: This Is Home Now

Author: Timothy Ready and Allert Brown-Gort

Metropolitan Chicago is undergoing a profound transformation from a region dominated politically and demographically by European Americans to one in which no single racial or ethnic group will be the majority. Long a preeminent center of manufacturing and trade, Chicago is known as a city that works. In The State of Latino Chicago, we examine the status of the region's fastest growing and, arguably, hardest working population.

Full Article (.pdf)

Cicero Youth Task Force

Author: Written by: Members of the Cicero Youth Task Force

The Cicero Youth Task Force is a volunteer coalition of over 40 individuals and organizations who are dedicated to the well-being of youth and families in Cicero, IL. It's mission is to enhance the quality of life for Cicero children and families by working together to prevent youth risk factors.

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Latino Demographic Growth in Metropolitan Chicago

Author: Rob Paral, Timothy Ready, Sung Chun, Wei Sun

With 1.4 million members,the Latino community is a large and growing part of the Metropolitan Chicago region. Latinos, who comprise one in six of the region?s residents, are found throughout the area, from older Chicago neighborhoods to new suburban developments.The population includes nearly as many foreign-born residents as native-born. While the Latino presence has become an especially prominent part of the social fabric of the region in recent years, Latinos have lived in Chicago since the early decades of the twentieth century. During the 1990s two-thirds of all new residents in the region were Latino.

Full Article (.pdf)

SOPEMI Report for Mexico

Author: Jorge A. Bustamante

Mexico has become a country both of immigration and emigration. This report represents an account of both movements based on statistics produced and/ or compiled primarily in Spanish by INM staff for the year 2002-2003. English translations were made by Jorge A. Bustamante; texts in English were written by INM staff.

Full Article (.pdf)

In Search of Economic Parity:The Mexican Labor Force in Chicago

Author: John Koval

This paper will focus on Mexicans and the Mexican labor force in Chicago. Its intent is fundamentally exploratory. Its specific goal is to lay a foundation and to identify some parameters for gauging the relative economic well-being of Mexicans in the Chicago metropolitan area and to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses on the path to economic parity?given a restructuring and evolving labor force and economy. In this sense it is a working paper in anticipation of a larger work on the Mexican labor force in the Chicago metropolitan area.

Full Article (.pdf)

Electoral Engagement among Latinos

Author: Mark Hugo Lopez

This report highlights differences in voter turnout and registrationrates within the Latino community and in comparison to other groups, with a special emphasis on young voters who constitute a larger proportion of the Latino electorate than in other communities. It also examines recent findings about other measures of electoral engagement as revealed in a recent large national survey.

Full Article (.pdf)

A Shared Future: The Economic Engagement of Greater Chicago and Its Mexican Community

Author:

The Chicago Council on Global Affairs' Task Force on the economic engagement of the Mexican community in greater Chicago was formed in October 2005 to examine critical issues related to the integration of the Mexican community into Chicago?s economic, social, and political life. The Task Force pursued three main objectives: to make concrete recommendations for action targeted to public and private institutions and leaders; to stimulate public and leadership discussion of key challenges and opportunities associated with economic engagement; and to encourage other institutions to pursue economic engagement in their own spheres.

The Task Force collaborated with the Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre Dame, the Midwest?s most prominent institution devoted to policy-relevant research on Latinos. For more information on the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, please visit: www.thechicagocouncil.org.

Full Article (.pdf)

Confianza, Savings, and Retirement: A Study of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Karen Richman, Teresa Ghilarducci, Roger Knight, Erin Jelm, and Joelle Saad-Lesser

This report examines the social, cultural, and economic factors influencing Mexican immigrants? savings and preparedness for retirement. The product of a unique partnership between an anthropologist and an economist, the report combines ethnographic research conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area in 2009 and 2010 with statistical analyses of large national, local, and comparative data sets. The report examines cultural values and social practices that influence Mexican immigrants? financial perspectives and behavior in both the formal and informal banking system. The report concludes with recommendations for financial and public policy makers to help enfranchise immigrants into the financial market and insure their retirement security.

Full Article (.pdf)

Attitudes toward Immigration: Findings from the Chicago-Area Survey

Author: Roger Knight, Timothy Ready, Gia Elise Barboza

Throughout its history Chicago has been a prime destination for new immigrants to the United States. Nearly one in five residents of metropolitan Chicago (18 percent) is an immigrant, compared to only 11 percent nationwide. Just under half (47 percent) of all immigrants in the Chicago area are from Latin America?principally Mexico. This paper examines the attitudes of Latino and non- Latino white and black Chicagoans towards immigration, in general, and the perceived impact on the country of immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, and various countries in Asia and Europe.

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The Research Challenges Posed by the Latino Experience

Author: Roberto Suro

Which statement in the following pairs is true?
Latinos have experienced big job growth.
Latinos have big unemployment problems.
Latinos are deeply concerned that their kids do not always get the best education.
Latinos give their schools very high marks.
Latinos are assimilating to American ways.
Latinos are holding on to distinct expressions of Hispanic identities.
Latinos? beliefs align more with the Democratic Party.
Latinos? hold some beliefs very much in line with the Republican Party.
Latinos are highly concentrated geographically.
Latinos are dispersing geographically.

Full Article (.pdf)

Education

Latino Educational Equity: Introducing a Web-Based Index plus Three Essays on Best Practice in Latino Education in the United States

Author: Timothy Ready, with essays by Sonia Soltero, José R. Rosario and Christine Wedam Rosario, and James Rosenbaum

The future of the United States and the well-being of all Americans depend on the quality of education that our nation?s children receive. If we are to achieve the American ideal of a society in which there is equal opportunity for all, we must ensure that access to high-quality learning opportunities and resources is universal and equitable. Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the US population but historically have been among the least well-served by schools.In addition to juxtaposing information about achievement and access to learning-relevant resources through the web-based index, we hope that the information in these papers on Best Practices will help to guide efforts to improve learning outcomes, especially for Latino students.

Full Article (.pdf)

Equipped To Serve: Latino/a Seminarians and the Future of Religious Leadership in the Latino/a Community

Author: Milagros Peña, Edwin I. Hernández, Caroline Sotelo-Turner, Danielle Dirks, Kari Jo Verhulst

This report presents a portrait of the next generation of Latino/a religious leaders and examines how effectively their theological education is preparing them to lead and serve Latino/a communities throughout the United States. Through analysis of quantitative survey data and in- depth focus group interviews, we identify the priorities and values that Latino/a seminarians will bring to their work as congregational and community leaders. We also analyze what institutional and curricular characteristics are most critical for preparing these future leaders to respond to the spiritual and material needs of Latinos/as in the United States.

Full Article (.pdf)

The State of Latino Chicago: This Is Home Now

Author: Timothy Ready and Allert Brown-Gort

Metropolitan Chicago is undergoing a profound transformation from a region dominated politically and demographically by European Americans to one in which no single racial or ethnic group will be the majority. Long a preeminent center of manufacturing and trade, Chicago is known as a city that works. In The State of Latino Chicago, we examine the status of the region's fastest growing and, arguably, hardest working population.

Full Article (.pdf)

Measuring the Minority Education Gap in Metropolitan Chicago

Author: The Institute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame, with support from the Joyce Foundation

The examination of the Illinois educational data system, with a special focus on the gaps that exist in ten suburban Cook County districts, provides a useful case study of the role that state education data systems can play not only in highlighting disparities in educational achievement but also in informing policies that can help achieve the twin goals of educational excellence and equity.

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Religion Matters: Predicting Schooling Success in Latino Youth

Author: David Sikkink and Edwin Hernández

Does religion improve educational outcomes for Latino youth? Research on the educational trajectories of Latino immigrants in the United States is growing, but we know little about what role, if any, religion plays in the academic success or failure of Latino youth. Dropout rates among some segments of Latino students are alarming. This paper examines the role of religion especially in impoverished inner-city schools.

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Strategies for Success: Cicero Education Forum Summary

Author: Sylvia Puente, Martha Zurita, Eva Serrano, Verónica Castr

Education is undeniably a path to upward mobility, yet Latino access to this path remains limited. The United States is increasingly dependent upon the success of Latinos, both for its labor supply and for the contribution Latinos make to the social security of retirees. Despite this fact, Latinos are the least formally educated group in the nation today, and many Latino youth lack the basic skills and knowledge required for economic and social mobility in today?s economy.

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Family and Households

The Significance of Gender for Latina/o Savings and Retirement

Author: Karen Richman, Wei Sun, Justin Sena, Sung David Chun

Interdisciplinary study of how gender affects Latinos’ savings for retirement. Combines statistical analysis of national survey data and a qualitative, case study of in 2012-2014 of Mexican immigrants and (native-born) Mexican-Americans’ in metropolitan Chicago.  Highlights The Resurrection Project, Second Federal Savings and Casa Esperanza of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church.  Demonstrates that income has a greater influence than gender on Latinos’ likelihood to save for retirement. Latinas who have been in the United States for a long time or were born in this country are embracing saving for retirement but they are more likely that Latinos to liquidate their pensions with a lump-sum payment, obliterating their nest egg in one fell swoop.  As long as their manifold insecurity and their collectivist adaptations to insecurity continue, increasing enrollment in the existing, punitive structure of tax-deferred defined contribution plans is unlikely to increase their retirement security and may even undermine their savings for retirement. Recommends the 2015 federal myRA savings program as a positive step toward eliminating barriers to retirement security. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Bordering the Mainstream: A Needs Assessment of Latinos in Berwyn and Cicero, Illinois

Author:

The Latino populations of Berwyn and Cicero, Illinois?two of Chicago?s oldest suburbs?have increased dramatically in the last decade. What issues matter most to Latinos in the two communities? Our 2002 study, Bordering the Mainstream: A Needs Assessment of Latinos in Berwyn and Cicero, Illinois, provided a timely and valuable snapshot.

The report's release is the first step in a major initiative undertaken by the University of Notre Dame's Institute for Latino Studies to conduct research and promote community capacity-building in Berwyn and Cicero. On April 24, 2002, the Institute held a public briefing to share results of the study with the media and local leaders at the Second Federal Savings and Loan in Cicero.

Among the study's key findings:

  • Despite lower education levels and incomes, Latino workers and business owners are making an important contribution to the local economy.
  • Church and community organizations, extended families, and nascent citizen participation are among the assets that strengthen the Latino community.
  • Both Latino and non-Latino residents of Berwyn and Cicero believe that the most important issues facing the community relate to children, education and youth.

The Institute for Latino Studies produced Bordering the Mainstream with funding from the MacNeal Health Foundation, in partnership with DePaul University's Egan Urban Center and Center for Latino Research and the Interfaith Leadership Project.

Full Article (.pdf)

Compassion on the Frontlines: an Assessment of Latino-Serving Faith-Based Organizations

Author: Guillermo Grenier, Rebecca Burwell, Edwin I Hernández, Michael Mata, Milagros Peña, Marciana Popescu, Aida Ramos, Jeffrey Smith

Though increased attention to the role of religion in American public life has helped to highlight important connections between religious commitment and the development of social capital within communities, little research has focused specifically on the social impact of Latino-serving faith-based organizations (FBOs). This report presents the findings of a survey of faith-based organizations that serve Latinos/as in four metro areas that together account for nearly a quarter of the Latino population in the United States. It finds that these organizations offer a large range of services primarily concentrated on educational and job training needs, advocacy, children and youth, immigration, family services, and health concerns, and offer nearly half of such programs in collaboration with other organizations. The report also documents the concrete impact that capacity-training projects have on the organizational development and infrastructure of such community-serving organizations.

Full Article (.pdf)

Gender

The Significance of Gender for Latina/o Savings and Retirement

Author: Karen Richman, Wei Sun, Justin Sena, Sung David Chun

Interdisciplinary study of how gender affects Latinos’ savings for retirement. Combines statistical analysis of national survey data and a qualitative, case study of in 2012-2014 of Mexican immigrants and (native-born) Mexican-Americans’ in metropolitan Chicago.  Highlights The Resurrection Project, Second Federal Savings and Casa Esperanza of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church.  Demonstrates that income has a greater influence than gender on Latinos’ likelihood to save for retirement. Latinas who have been in the United States for a long time or were born in this country are embracing saving for retirement but they are more likely that Latinos to liquidate their pensions with a lump-sum payment, obliterating their nest egg in one fell swoop.  As long as their manifold insecurity and their collectivist adaptations to insecurity continue, increasing enrollment in the existing, punitive structure of tax-deferred defined contribution plans is unlikely to increase their retirement security and may even undermine their savings for retirement. Recommends the 2015 federal myRA savings program as a positive step toward eliminating barriers to retirement security. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Healthcare

Immigration and Transnationalism

Attitudes toward Immigration: Findings from the Chicago-Area Survey

Author: Roger Knight, Timothy Ready, Gia Elise Barboza

Throughout its history Chicago has been a prime destination for new immigrants to the United States. Nearly one in five residents of metropolitan Chicago (18 percent) is an immigrant, compared to only 11 percent nationwide. Just under half (47 percent) of all immigrants in the Chicago area are from Latin America?principally Mexico. This paper examines the attitudes of Latino and non- Latino white and black Chicagoans towards immigration, in general, and the perceived impact on the country of immigrants from Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, and various countries in Asia and Europe.

Full Article (.pdf)

Labor and the Economy

The Significance of Gender for Latina/o Savings and Retirement

Author: Karen Richman, Wei Sun, Justin Sena, Sung David Chun

Interdisciplinary study of how gender affects Latinos’ savings for retirement. Combines statistical analysis of national survey data and a qualitative, case study of in 2012-2014 of Mexican immigrants and (native-born) Mexican-Americans’ in metropolitan Chicago.  Highlights The Resurrection Project, Second Federal Savings and Casa Esperanza of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church.  Demonstrates that income has a greater influence than gender on Latinos’ likelihood to save for retirement. Latinas who have been in the United States for a long time or were born in this country are embracing saving for retirement but they are more likely that Latinos to liquidate their pensions with a lump-sum payment, obliterating their nest egg in one fell swoop.  As long as their manifold insecurity and their collectivist adaptations to insecurity continue, increasing enrollment in the existing, punitive structure of tax-deferred defined contribution plans is unlikely to increase their retirement security and may even undermine their savings for retirement. Recommends the 2015 federal myRA savings program as a positive step toward eliminating barriers to retirement security. 

Full Article (.pdf)

The Economic Impact of the Landscape and Lawn Care Services Industry on U.S. Latinos

Author: Juan Carlos Guzman, Cynthia V. Duarte, Daniel E. Martinez

This report presents findings of a study commissioned by the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (USHCC) and conducted by the Inter-University Program for Latino Research (IUPLR) to examine the economic impact of the Landscape and Lawn Care Services Industry on US Latinos. It includes analysis of income, employment and business ownership data and is intended to provide insight into the industry's impact upon (and value to) the U.S. Latino community.

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The Housing Crisis and Latino Home Ownership in Chicago: Mortgage Applications, Foreclosures, and Property Values

Author: Martha Argelia Martinez

The present economic downturn is rooted in a housing crisis that has spilled over to other areas of the economy. The combination of socioeconomic vulnerability with riskier credits contribute to the fact that Latinos entered this crisis in a severely disadvantaged position. This report provides an overview of the effect of the present crisis on housing-related issues for Latinos and Latino neighborhoods in Chicago and a comparison with the effects on whites and African Americans. The report concentrates on three interrelated dimensions: mortgage credit availability, foreclosure levels, and property values.

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SB 345/HB 1219: Economic and Demographic Impacts on Indiana

Author: Allert Brown-Gort, Juan Carlos Guzmán

The Institute for Latino Studies is pleased to announce the release of SB 345/HB 1219: Economic and Demographic Impacts on Indiana, a policy brief describing the effects of proposed legislation aimed at controlling unauthorized immigration currently being considered by the Indiana Legislature.

Full Article (.pdf)

Preparing for the Future: Latinos? Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning

Author: Wei Sun, Gia Barboza, Karen Richman

Over the past three decades, the burden of responsibility for retirement savings has shifted from employer to employee. Saving for retirement has changed from an insured, employer-provided benefit to an uninsured employee-provided deduction from a paycheck. When retirement planning and investment decision-making is largely relegated to individuals, financial literacy is essential. Financial illiteracy, however, is widespread throughout the population and is of particular concern for Latinos. Closing the gap between what American workers generally and Latino workers, in particular, need to know to prepare for retirement and their current level of preparation is an urgent need.

Full Article (.pdf)

Causes of Latinos' Low Pension Coverage

Author: Teresa Ghilarducci, Karen Richman and Wei Sun

This study advances the current literature on Latinos? pension participation by separating voluntary exclusion from the involuntary exclusion. Logistic regression analysis of the 2001 Survey of Income Program Participants (SIPP) reveals that immigrant status and country of origin explain why Latinos would voluntarily opt out of participating in their employer?s pension plan. Policy reforms that would bolster Latino retirement income security include encouraging plan coverage of part-time and seasonal workers, offering refundable tax credits to low-income workers, requiring automatic enrollment, and enfranchising Latinos into the US financial and Social Security systems.

Full Article (.pdf)

The State of Latino Chicago: This Is Home Now

Author: Timothy Ready and Allert Brown-Gort

Metropolitan Chicago is undergoing a profound transformation from a region dominated politically and demographically by European Americans to one in which no single racial or ethnic group will be the majority. Long a preeminent center of manufacturing and trade, Chicago is known as a city that works. In The State of Latino Chicago, we examine the status of the region's fastest growing and, arguably, hardest working population.

Full Article (.pdf)

In Search of Economic Parity:The Mexican Labor Force in Chicago

Author: John Koval

This paper will focus on Mexicans and the Mexican labor force in Chicago. Its intent is fundamentally exploratory. Its specific goal is to lay a foundation and to identify some parameters for gauging the relative economic well-being of Mexicans in the Chicago metropolitan area and to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses on the path to economic parity?given a restructuring and evolving labor force and economy. In this sense it is a working paper in anticipation of a larger work on the Mexican labor force in the Chicago metropolitan area.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latinos' Low Pension Coverage and Disenfranchisement from the US Financial System

Author: Wei Sun and Teresa Ghilarducci

This study advances the current literature on Latinos? pension participation by separating voluntary exclusion from the involuntary exclusion. Logistic regression analysis of the 2001 Survey of Income Program Participants (SIPP) reveals that immigrant status and country of origin explain why Latinos would voluntarily opt out of participating in their employer?s pension plan. Policy reforms that would bolster Latino retirement income security include encouraging plan coverage of part-time and seasonal workers, offering refundable tax credits to low-income workers, requiring automatic enrollment, and enfranchising Latinos into the US financial and Social Security systems.

Full Article (.pdf)

A Shared Future: The Economic Engagement of Greater Chicago and Its Mexican Community

Author:

The Chicago Council on Global Affairs' Task Force on the economic engagement of the Mexican community in greater Chicago was formed in October 2005 to examine critical issues related to the integration of the Mexican community into Chicago?s economic, social, and political life. The Task Force pursued three main objectives: to make concrete recommendations for action targeted to public and private institutions and leaders; to stimulate public and leadership discussion of key challenges and opportunities associated with economic engagement; and to encourage other institutions to pursue economic engagement in their own spheres.

The Task Force collaborated with the Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre Dame, the Midwest?s most prominent institution devoted to policy-relevant research on Latinos. For more information on the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, please visit: www.thechicagocouncil.org.

Full Article (.pdf)

Confianza, Savings, and Retirement: A Study of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Karen Richman, Teresa Ghilarducci, Roger Knight, Erin Jelm, and Joelle Saad-Lesser

This report examines the social, cultural, and economic factors influencing Mexican immigrants? savings and preparedness for retirement. The product of a unique partnership between an anthropologist and an economist, the report combines ethnographic research conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area in 2009 and 2010 with statistical analyses of large national, local, and comparative data sets. The report examines cultural values and social practices that influence Mexican immigrants? financial perspectives and behavior in both the formal and informal banking system. The report concludes with recommendations for financial and public policy makers to help enfranchise immigrants into the financial market and insure their retirement security.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religion

The Politics of the Latino Church

Author: Jessica Hamar Martínez, Edwin I. Hernández Rebecca Burwell, Milagros Peña and David Sikkink

This report describes the political views and behaviors of leaders and congregants in Latino churches in Chicago. Using data from the Chicago Latino Congregations Study, conducted between 2004 and 2007, we examine the social and political views held by participants in Chicago Latino churches, the extent to which church leaders and their parishioners are involved in political activities, and whether or not church leaders influence the political participation of congregants. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Healing Hands: The Health of Latino/a Churchgoers and Health Outreach among Latino Congregations in Chicago

Author: Edwin I Hernández, Jeffrey Smith, Rebecca Burwell, Milagros Peña, David Sikkink

The health status of US Latinos/as1 has been described as a ?paradox.? Though Latinos/as as a group have a lower socioeconomic status than non-Hispanic whites and African Americans, they do not suffer from comparatively higher mortality rates in infancy (Hummer et al. 2007), adulthood (Palloni and Arias 2004), or among the elderly (Hummer, Benjamins, and Rogers 2004). In fact, the opposite is true?a reality Markides and Coreil dubbed the ?Hispanic epidemiologic paradox? (Markides and Coreil 1986).

Full Article (.pdf)

What Can Seminaries Do to Prepare Their Students for Ministry in the Latino Community?

Author: Edwin I Hernández, Milagros Peña, Caroline Sotello Viernes Turner, Jeffrey Smith, Kari Jo Verhulst

As custodians of the next generation of pastors and lay religious leaders, seminaries and graduate schools of theology must constantly adapt their programming to keep up with the changing needs of the churches and communities their students will go on to serve. The ongoing growth of the Hispanic population in both Catholic and Protestant congregations has spurred such institutions to evaluate their curricula and general academic cultures to identify how to best prepare ministers for service to and with Latinos/as. This final report in this series investigating the experiences of Latino/a seminarians explores which institutional practices and programs help ensure that these future ministers are prepared to be effective leaders in the church.

Full Article (.pdf)

Finding the Right Seminary: Influences on Institutional Choice, Expectations, and Satisfaction among Latino/a Seminarians

Author: Edwin I. Hernández, Milagros Peña, Caroline Viernes Sotello Turner, Jeffrey Smith, Kari Jo Verhulst

This fourth report in a series of Latino Research@ND reports on Latinos/as and theological education identifies the key factors that influence Latino/a seminarians? choice of educational institution and examines whether these students? institutional expectations are being met. We find that Latino/a seminarians share many of the same concerns as their white and especially African American counterparts for a theologically compatible, quality education without undue financial burden. Though they are generally satisfied with the institutions they choose to attend, there is a pronounced gap between the importance ascribed to finances in choosing one?s seminary and the adequacy of the financial aid one?s institution offers.

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Mapping Compassion on the Frontlines: a National Directory of Latino-Serving Faith-Based Organizations

Author: Prepared by the Center for the Study of Latino Religion, Institute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame

This directory lists Latino-serving faith-based organizations in 45 cities throughout the Easter, Southeastern, Midwest, and Western regions of the United States. Most entries include details about the religious and ethnic identity of each organization, the social services it provides, and whether it has certain organizational structures in place (e.g., annual budget, a board of directors, 501(c)(3) status).

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Faith and Values in Action: Religion, Politics, and Social Attitudes Among US Latinos/as

Author: Edwin I Hernández, Kenneth G. Davis, Milagros Peña, Georgian Schiopu, Jeffrey Smith, Matthew T. Loveland

Religion plays a considerable role in shaping many Americans? civic engagement and political behavior, including how they vote and what political party they prefer. Few studies have explored in great depth the extent to which this is so among Latinos/as. Analyzing the Pew Hispanic Center's 2004 National Survey of Latinos, this report attempts to shed light on how religious affiliation and regular church attendance influence Latinos/as? volunteering rates, political party identification, and positions on social and moral issues.

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An Educational and Ministerial Profile of Latino/a Seminarians

Author: Edwin I. Hernández, Milagros Peña, Caroline Sotello Viernes Turner, Jeffrey Smith, Kari Jo Verhulst

This is the second of a series of Latino Research@ND reports focusing on Latinos/as and theological education. It analyzes what a quantitative survey of Latino/a theological students reveals about the educational and ministerial backgrounds of Latino/a seminarians. We find that Latinos/as arrive at seminary with considerable community and religious leadership experience. They also come from comparatively less formally educated families than their white non-Hispanic peers?a reality that might complicate their social and academic acclimation to graduate school. We conclude that seminaries need both to recognize the challenges that their Latino/a students face and to welcome the experiences and perspectives that they bring to the seminary community.

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Answering the Call: How Latino Churches Can Respond to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

Author: Edwin I. Hernández, Rebecca Burwell, and Jeffrey Smith

The past two decades have seen a dramatic rise in HIV/AIDS infection rates in communities of color across the United States. Churches have been shown to play a deterrent role on behaviors that put one at risk for HIV infection. Other studies have found that churches play an important role in social service provision in urban neighborhoods, and that they are often the only institutions that undocumented immigrants can access for help. Using an intensive study of Latino congregations in Chicago, the report examines what Latino churches are currently doing to respond to the epidemic, and what congregational and leadership characteristics appear to contribute to such efforts.

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A Demographic Profile of Latino/a Seminarians

Author: Edwin I. Hernández, Milagros Peña, Caroline Sotello Viernes Turner, Jeffrey Smith, Kari Jo Verhulst

This is the first of a series of Latino Research@ND reports focusing on Latinos/as and theological education. While the rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States has led to a concomitant rise in the Latino presence in both Catholic and Protestant congregations, Latinos/as remain underrepresented among the religious leadership of most Christian denominations. Cultivating a well-trained cadre of Latino/a religious leaders is critical for the vitality of the US Latino community. The experiences of Latino/a seminarians highlighted in this report provide an important window into the future of Latino religious leadership.

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Equipped To Serve: Latino/a Seminarians and the Future of Religious Leadership in the Latino/a Community

Author: Milagros Peña, Edwin I. Hernández, Caroline Sotelo-Turner, Danielle Dirks, Kari Jo Verhulst

This report presents a portrait of the next generation of Latino/a religious leaders and examines how effectively their theological education is preparing them to lead and serve Latino/a communities throughout the United States. Through analysis of quantitative survey data and in- depth focus group interviews, we identify the priorities and values that Latino/a seminarians will bring to their work as congregational and community leaders. We also analyze what institutional and curricular characteristics are most critical for preparing these future leaders to respond to the spiritual and material needs of Latinos/as in the United States.

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Latino Congregations and Social Service: The Philadelphia Story

Author: Ram A. Cnaan, Edwin I. Hernández, Charlene C. McGrew

Recent attention to the role of religion in American public life has highlighted the important role that religious institutions play in generating social capital and volunteering and in helping people develop skills that are critical for effective citizenship. This report presents the findings of an investigation of the organizational behavior and social involvement of Latino congregations in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and identifies the demographic and social characteristics that shape their social and civic engagement.

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Anti-Castro Political Ideology among Cuban Americans in the Miami Area: Cohort and Generational Differences

Author: Sung Chun and Guillermo J. Grenier

Even though the Florida Cuban American community varies according to generation and the ?wave? of immigration that brought immigrants to the United States, social scientists and the public tend to take the community?s monolithic political profile for granted and assume that it remains unchanged over time. Yet careful analysis of recent data reveals that while most Cuban Americans in South Florida are anti-Castro, the level of their fervor varies greatly among generational and wave cohorts.

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Hispanic Clergy and the Task of Ministry in Urban America

Author: Edwin Hernández, Milagros Peña and Melissa Mauldin

This report seeks to examine the complex role that Latino/a ministers play and the myriad ways they mobilize resources on behalf of their communities. By exploring the experiences, insights, and struggles of Latino/a ministers, we hope to help deepen the understanding of how US Hispanics are faring and to illuminate some of the resources and support that are needed to help strengthen these leaders? efforts to meet the spiritual and social needs of their communities.

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Religion Matters: Predicting Schooling Success in Latino Youth

Author: David Sikkink and Edwin Hernández

Does religion improve educational outcomes for Latino youth? Research on the educational trajectories of Latino immigrants in the United States is growing, but we know little about what role, if any, religion plays in the academic success or failure of Latino youth. Dropout rates among some segments of Latino students are alarming. This paper examines the role of religion especially in impoverished inner-city schools.

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Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings

Author: Gastón Espinosa, Virgilio Elizondo, Jesse Miranda

This publication presents a summary of the findings of the Hispanic Churches in American Public Life (HCAPL) research project. The HCAPL project was a three-year study, funded by a grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, that sought to examine the impact of religion on political and civic engagement in the Latino community.

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Compassion on the Frontlines: an Assessment of Latino-Serving Faith-Based Organizations

Author: Guillermo Grenier, Rebecca Burwell, Edwin I Hernández, Michael Mata, Milagros Peña, Marciana Popescu, Aida Ramos, Jeffrey Smith

Though increased attention to the role of religion in American public life has helped to highlight important connections between religious commitment and the development of social capital within communities, little research has focused specifically on the social impact of Latino-serving faith-based organizations (FBOs). This report presents the findings of a survey of faith-based organizations that serve Latinos/as in four metro areas that together account for nearly a quarter of the Latino population in the United States. It finds that these organizations offer a large range of services primarily concentrated on educational and job training needs, advocacy, children and youth, immigration, family services, and health concerns, and offer nearly half of such programs in collaboration with other organizations. The report also documents the concrete impact that capacity-training projects have on the organizational development and infrastructure of such community-serving organizations.

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