Student Research Briefs Series

Undergraduate students in Latino studies community-based research courses taught by Professors Marisel Moreno-Anderson and Karen Richman launched a Student Research Series in 2007. The launch of the publication was supported by the Institute for Latino Studies, Notre Dame’s President’s Circle, the Office of Research and the Saint Joseph Regional Medical Foundation. The briefs are intended to inform scholars, community leaders, service providers, and the public at large about local Latino settlement, contributions, and challenges in the South Bend area. Topics include arts, culture, demography, education, entrepreneurship, family, gender, health care, housing, identity, immigration, labor, language, politics, religion and youth.

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Children and Youth

Fitting IN: Assimilation Processess in South Bend

Author: Molly Sammon and Kyla Wargel

Examines how Mexicans and other Latinos adapt to living in South Bend through the discussion of various assimilation processes, in particular changing family, social, and gender roles. Analyzes immigrant youth and violence and various programs aimed at violence reduction and reformation. Provides an overview of Latinos participation in varying social settings such as church, medical, and education services.

Full Article (.pdf)

Involving Latino Parents in Education: Advocating for Children with Special Needs

Author: Carolyn Leary and Colin Parker

Examines the challenges of Latino children’s access to quality special education in the context of the broader racial educational achievement gap in South Bend and the country as a whole.  Based on participant observation and literature review.  Concludes that the solution lies in encouraging and supporting parental involvement in their children’s schools and promoting outreach to and advocacy for the Latino community. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Adolescence: A Look into Mexican-American South Bend & Mexican-American Youth

Author: Ruby Amezquita and Jonathan Lopez

Shows how Mexican immigrants encounter a new cultural construct of adolescence in the United States.  Examines how conflicting inter-generational cultural experiences affect adolescence among Mexican-American youth in South Bend.  Features interviews with young females preparing for and experiencing quinceañera and young males going through a defacto masculine rite of passage into gangs.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Catholicism, Higher Education, and the CSC

Author: Robert Rienzo and Grace Parsons

Explores the existence of Latinos in higher education over the last few decades. Focuses on the relationship between Notre Dame, Latinos on campus, and its surrounding Latino population and on campus. Recommends changes in University policy to better serve Latino communities.

Full Article (.pdf)

Mexican Gangs in South Bend

Author: Joey Leary and Sophia Cortez

Discusses relationship between cities, poverty and gangs nationally and in South Bend.  Discusses Mexican involvement in local gangs and themes of location, ethnic composition, motivation, popular media's influence and gang violence.  Reports on youth boxing programs and other measures to help local youth avoid gangs.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Oppositional Youth Sub-Culture and the Second Generation of Mexican Transmigrants

Author: Caroline Hawes

Addresses generational shifts in Latino communities in South Bend and the increase in oppositional youth sub-culture within second-generation Latino youth communities. Research comes from Pew Hispanic Trust data on 21st century Latino immigrants and their families. Explores reasons for the emergence of oppositional youth sub-cultures such as gangs, particularly among males. Includes interviews from members of the South Bend Latino community as well as staff and incarcerated youth at the South Bend Juvenile Correctional Facility. Findings include a resistance to education, social expectations, and an inclination toward violence and substance abuse as a result of as familial dysfunctions, high recidivism rates, poor education systems, and a variety of other structural disadvantages. Research suggests social services to provide youth with alternatives to violence and oppositional, resistant behavior.

Full Article (.pdf)

Realities of Immigration: Heterogeneous Status Families in South Bend

Author: Stephen Oliva and Victor Cruz, Jr.

Discusses varying documentation status within Latino families and the differing coping mechanisms within these heterogeneous families. Examines how political discourse is used to vilify immigrants. Presents various policy implications to the current immigrant reality and underscores these policies with personal undocumented immigrant narratives.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religion, Identity, and Latino Youth in South Bend

Author: John VanBerkum and Katie Hamel

Looks at religious identity among South Bend youth and shifting trends among young Catholics in the city. Provides historical background on local parishes, including St. Adalbert—a predominantly Latino parish and how it can better work to serve its youth.

Full Article (.pdf)

Success of Latino High School Students in South Bend

Author: Madeline Basil and Enrique Lorenzo

Explores the success of Latino students at Catholic high schools in South Bend to address concerns among Latino parishes. Looks at complex factors that influence education, including parent involvement, mentoring, community violence, and other factors. Recommends changes in curriculum and school policies to aid Latino communities and increase parental involvement.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Mexican Transnational Family Experience in South Bend

Author: Katharine Feeley and Erin Jelm

Looks at changing definitions of family within Latino families, including an erosion of gendered roles in Latino homes and a shift toward more traditional nuclear families separate from traditional Mexican tendencies to live among extended family members after marriage. Study is based on interviews with various immigrant couples from D.F., Mexico at La Casa de Amistad in South Bend, IN.  Findings indicate a strong focus on collectivism, respeto, and confianza among married couples in the U.S. Additional findings include a decrease in traditionally large Mexican families due to urbanization and a change in how children are raised in the United States in comparison to Mexico—including an emphasis on the individual, different types of discipline, and increased educational and socio-economic opportunities for children.

Full Article (.pdf)

Citizenship and Civic Participation

Justicia Para Todos: Colaboración de estudiantes multiétnicos en defensa de los derechos civiles

Author: Maya Younes

La Universidad de Notre Dame tiene una historia muy rica de activismo y colaboración estudiantil de diferentes grupos raciales para mejorar la aceptación y celebración de la diversidad cultural en la comunidad. Desde 1969, los estudiantes afroamericanos, latinos, y asiáticos, se han expresado – publicando artículos en el periódico estudiantil, The Observer, y en otros periódicos de la comunidad como Nuestra Voz – sobre las dificultades de ser una minoría étnica en Notre Dame. En el pasado, muchos estudiantes de minorías étnicas escribieron sobre el racismo, los prejuicios, y los estereotipos dirigidos a estudiantes de color que todavía persisten en Notre Dame. ¿Qué lecciones podemos aprender de cómo luchar por una comunidad sin discriminación?

Full Article (.pdf)

La salud en la comunidad latina de South Bend

Author: Allison Steiner and Olivia Redline

Según la World Health Organization, la salud es un recurso para la vida diaria, no sólo una meta a largo plazo. La salud es algo positivo, no sólo la falta de algo negativo. La salud significa más que no sentirse uno enfermo o sin dolor. Es más que simplemente no tener necesidad de tomar medicamentos.

Full Article (.pdf)

Los Otros Latinos: Centro Americanos en South Bend

Author: Sofía Tirado

La mayoría de la migración reciente de América Central hacia los Estados Unidos tiene su punto de origen en las situaciones políticas violentas particularmente durante la época de los 1980. Muchos de los primeros migrantes que participaron en los movimientos de la izquierda continuaron con su meta de movilizar la opinión pública hacia la intervención militar estadounidense en sus respectivos países. 

Full Article (.pdf)

La historia de La Casa de Amistad

Author: Anne Maddens and Clarissa Mertens

La Casa de Amistad surgió del compromiso del Padre John Phalen C.S.C. hacia la gente joven y su deseo de asegurarse de que tuvieran una buena educación y un ambiente saludable en sus hogares. Un sacerdote de la Congregación de Holy Cross, el Padre John Phalen se interesó por la cultura latina durante de sus años universitarios en Stonehill College.

Full Article (.pdf)

Fictive Kinship and Acquaintance Networks as Sources of Support and Social Capital for Mexican Transmigrants in South Bend

Author: Erin Jelm

Grounded in extensive literature review and primary ethnographic research in the Mexican immigrant community. Explores the role of social networks as essential sources of support and generators of social capital for Latino immigrants as they adjust to life in the United States. Whereas in U.S. "American" culture, kinship is defined as biogenetic, Latino culture is characteristically more flexible with its interpretation. "Family" includes extended relatives and even close friends who are incorporated into the tightly knit kin network via fictive kinship relationships.

Full Article (.pdf)

Inmigrantes Latinos en South Bend

Author: Jenna Adsit, Emilie Prot, Kimberly Tavarez; Translated by Maria Moreno

Descripción demográfica de los inmigrantes latinos en South Bend utilizando datos de la American Community Survey (ACS) la Comunidad Estadounidense, entre otras fuentes, provee información sobre los patrones de migración interna y residenciales de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en esta área, los motivos por los cuales se mudaron y su distribución de edad, nacionalidad y fluidez económica. La información analizada corresponde al periodo entre los años 1990 y 2000, durante el cual la población de latinos aumentó a razón de 157%, mientras que la población afro-americana creció un 20% y la población caucásica se disminuyó por un 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants in South Bend

Author: Kimberly Tavarez, Jenna Adsit, and Emilie Prot

Demographic description of Latino immigrants in South Bend using data from the American Community Survey and other sources, covering history of Latino immigration into area, reasons for coming, place of origin, residential patterns, economic situation and age distribution.  Focuses on period 1990-2000 when the Latino population grew by 157%, the African-American population increased by 20% and the Caucasian population decreased by 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Adolescence: A Look into Mexican-American South Bend & Mexican-American Youth

Author: Ruby Amezquita and Jonathan Lopez

Shows how Mexican immigrants encounter a new cultural construct of adolescence in the United States.  Examines how conflicting inter-generational cultural experiences affect adolescence among Mexican-American youth in South Bend.  Features interviews with young females preparing for and experiencing quinceañera and young males going through a defacto masculine rite of passage into gangs.

Full Article (.pdf)

Ethnic Transitions between Poles and Mexicans

Author: Greg Podolej

Describes the history of Polish settlement in South Bend, the entrance of the Mexican community and the processes of ethnic transition.  Focuses on the transition in the St. Adalbert parish and the Central Bakery (la Panadería Central).  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Language and Identity of Latinos in South Bend

Author: Hector Avitia and Fatima Monterrubio

Examines speech behavior, language ideology and bilingualism in South Bend in the context of theories of linguistic assimilation, bilingualism, nationalism and language policies in the United States.  Analyzes results of a language survey completed by Latino youth, which reveals values and ideologies of English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Political Participation and Civic Engagement Among Latinos in South Bend

Author: Heidi Eckstein

Study of how Mexican immigrants in South Bend participate politically, either in the United States or Mexico or both. Seeks to fill a gap in the current knowledge base while providing a different viewpoint on their assimilation and transnational behavior. Adding a political dimension to current research is a step towards a more holistic picture of the Mexican community in South Bend. Actions in the political sphere provide an additional framework to describe and measure both assimilation into American life and transnational identification with home communities. Whether or not immigrants seek U.S. or dual citizenship, what they expect from politicians, how they participate in Mexican politics and what they know about American politics are all indicators of both how they are assimilating and how they retain ties with Mexico.

Full Article (.pdf)

State Immigration Policies

Author: Robert Burkett and William Cernanec

Provides a history of immigration law in the United States, beginning in the late 1800s and continuing to present day. Explains the prevalence of anti-immigrant sentiment in the US and the implications of SB 1070, Arizona’s anti-immigrant bill and similar bills in other states that followed.  Finds a negative impact on the economy and social relationships and an increased fear of law enforcement in immigrants.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Effects of Immigration on the Family

Author: Claire Podgorski and Carolyn Rumer

Explains how the arduous requirements to become an authorized immigrant in the United States, the huge backlog of immigrant petitions and the number of years it takes to complete the process deter many migrants from even applying.  Provides list of immigrant categories. Describes the empowering experiences of some who succeeded and went on to become naturalized citizens. Based on research in an immigration law office and participant observation and tutoring at a citizenship class.

Full Article (.pdf)

Education

Educación primaria de niños latinos en South end y los Estados Unidos: el pasado y el presente

Author: Samantha Chamberlain and Joseph Sleevi

Describe el origen y el trasfondo histórico de una serie de conflictos que han obstaculizado el desarrollo educativo de los hijos de inmigrantes hispanos que cursan la escuela primaria en los Estados Unidos y explica como algunos de estos aún afectan el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes latinoamericanos durante estas etapas. Los autores comparan esta información con lo que observaron al participar en el programa “Crece Conmigo” de la Casa de Amistad.

Full Article (.pdf)

La instrucción del inglés como segunda lengua: en el pasado y actualmente

Author: Tara Duffy and Katy Murdza

Expone los hechos relacionados a la controversia sobre los programas de instrucción del inglés como segunda lengua en EEUU, discutiendo la cronología y el historial jurídico de la misma. Detalla las circunstancias bajo las cuales se encuentra el programa en la actualidad, profundizando en las de la ciudad de South Bend y el estado de Indiana, en general. Provee información sobre algunos de los métodos de lingüística aplicada comúnmente implementados por los programas de esta naturaleza y sobre dos de los centros comunitarios localizados en South Bend que se especializan en este tipo de enseñanza.

Full Article (.pdf)

Oportunidades para estudiantes indocumentados: una guía para la educación superior

Author: Chelsey Ramos and Nimmy Thomas

Expone algunos de los beneficios que conlleva la educación universitaria para los estudiantes indocumentados en los Estados Unidos. Incluye información relevante sobre el DREAM Act, las distintas universidades a las cuales estos estudiantes pueden solicitar y la variedad de programas de asistencia económica y recursos comunitarios que les son disponibles.

Full Article (.pdf)

Involving Latino Parents in Education: Advocating for Children with Special Needs

Author: Carolyn Leary and Colin Parker

Examines the challenges of Latino children’s access to quality special education in the context of the broader racial educational achievement gap in South Bend and the country as a whole.  Based on participant observation and literature review.  Concludes that the solution lies in encouraging and supporting parental involvement in their children’s schools and promoting outreach to and advocacy for the Latino community. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Generation: The Story of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Ashleigh Renteria and Vanessa Adjei

Focuses on the concept of immigrant generation as a way of examining transnationalism, assimilation and acculturation across first, second and third generation Mexicans.  Explores the relationship of generation to educational achievement, income, wealth, food culture and religious observance.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Catholicism, Higher Education, and the CSC

Author: Robert Rienzo and Grace Parsons

Explores the existence of Latinos in higher education over the last few decades. Focuses on the relationship between Notre Dame, Latinos on campus, and its surrounding Latino population and on campus. Recommends changes in University policy to better serve Latino communities.

Full Article (.pdf)

Success of Latino High School Students in South Bend

Author: Madeline Basil and Enrique Lorenzo

Explores the success of Latino students at Catholic high schools in South Bend to address concerns among Latino parishes. Looks at complex factors that influence education, including parent involvement, mentoring, community violence, and other factors. Recommends changes in curriculum and school policies to aid Latino communities and increase parental involvement.

Full Article (.pdf)

Family and Households

Fitting IN: Assimilation Processess in South Bend

Author: Molly Sammon and Kyla Wargel

Examines how Mexicans and other Latinos adapt to living in South Bend through the discussion of various assimilation processes, in particular changing family, social, and gender roles. Analyzes immigrant youth and violence and various programs aimed at violence reduction and reformation. Provides an overview of Latinos participation in varying social settings such as church, medical, and education services.

Full Article (.pdf)

Involving Latino Parents in Education: Advocating for Children with Special Needs

Author: Carolyn Leary and Colin Parker

Examines the challenges of Latino children’s access to quality special education in the context of the broader racial educational achievement gap in South Bend and the country as a whole.  Based on participant observation and literature review.  Concludes that the solution lies in encouraging and supporting parental involvement in their children’s schools and promoting outreach to and advocacy for the Latino community. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Generation: The Story of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Ashleigh Renteria and Vanessa Adjei

Focuses on the concept of immigrant generation as a way of examining transnationalism, assimilation and acculturation across first, second and third generation Mexicans.  Explores the relationship of generation to educational achievement, income, wealth, food culture and religious observance.

Full Article (.pdf)

Fictive Kinship and Acquaintance Networks as Sources of Support and Social Capital for Mexican Transmigrants in South Bend

Author: Erin Jelm

Grounded in extensive literature review and primary ethnographic research in the Mexican immigrant community. Explores the role of social networks as essential sources of support and generators of social capital for Latino immigrants as they adjust to life in the United States. Whereas in U.S. "American" culture, kinship is defined as biogenetic, Latino culture is characteristically more flexible with its interpretation. "Family" includes extended relatives and even close friends who are incorporated into the tightly knit kin network via fictive kinship relationships.

Full Article (.pdf)

Healthcare Access for Latinos in South Bend

Author: Erika Daley and Christine Hall

Describes the healthcare needs and obstacles to access facing Latinos nationally and in South Bend. Focuses on language and financial barriers to healthcare. Informs healthcare practitioners about some of Mexicans’ popular healthcare beliefs and practices.  Reports on culturally and linguistically sensitive diabetes outreach programs of two local hospitals.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Religions in South Bend

Author: Emilie Prot, Stephanie Brauer, Elizabeth Ferrufino, and Jennifer Towey

Describes Latino religious affiliation, worship, and practices in South Bend in comparison to national trends and processes.  Provides map of local churches where Latinos, particularly Mexicans, worship.  Describes programs for youth, quinceañera rituals, spirituality, veneration of Guadalupe, the rise in conversions to Protestantism and the nature of their congregations.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Orale! Food and Identity Amongst Latinos

Author: Ruben Saldaña, Jr., and George Felix

Looks at food as an indicator of culture and identity in Mexican households. Addresses common misconceptions pertaining to Latinos and Hispanics and the origins of various Mexican dishes. Relies on data from an open survey conducted via social media.

Full Article (.pdf)

Realities of Immigration: Heterogeneous Status Families in South Bend

Author: Stephen Oliva and Victor Cruz, Jr.

Discusses varying documentation status within Latino families and the differing coping mechanisms within these heterogeneous families. Examines how political discourse is used to vilify immigrants. Presents various policy implications to the current immigrant reality and underscores these policies with personal undocumented immigrant narratives.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religiones Latinas en South Bend

Author: Stephanie Beauer, Elizabeth Ferrufino, Emilie Prot, Jennifer Towey; Translated by Maria Moreno

Describe las tendencias en la afiliación religiosa, las ceremonias de alabanza y las prácticas de los Latinos en South Bend, en comparación a aquellas de los procesos nacionales. Proporciona un mapa de las iglesias locales donde los latinos, particularmente los mexicanos, rinden culto. Abarca los temas de los programas dirigidos a la juventud, las ceremonias de quinceañera, la espiritualidad, la veneración de la virgen de Guadalupe y el aumento en la tasa de latinos que se convierten al Protestantismo y cómo se congregan para rendir culto. En Inglés y Español.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Effects of Immigration on the Family

Author: Claire Podgorski and Carolyn Rumer

Explains how the arduous requirements to become an authorized immigrant in the United States, the huge backlog of immigrant petitions and the number of years it takes to complete the process deter many migrants from even applying.  Provides list of immigrant categories. Describes the empowering experiences of some who succeeded and went on to become naturalized citizens. Based on research in an immigration law office and participant observation and tutoring at a citizenship class.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Mexican Transnational Family Experience in South Bend

Author: Katharine Feeley and Erin Jelm

Looks at changing definitions of family within Latino families, including an erosion of gendered roles in Latino homes and a shift toward more traditional nuclear families separate from traditional Mexican tendencies to live among extended family members after marriage. Study is based on interviews with various immigrant couples from D.F., Mexico at La Casa de Amistad in South Bend, IN.  Findings indicate a strong focus on collectivism, respeto, and confianza among married couples in the U.S. Additional findings include a decrease in traditionally large Mexican families due to urbanization and a change in how children are raised in the United States in comparison to Mexico—including an emphasis on the individual, different types of discipline, and increased educational and socio-economic opportunities for children.

Full Article (.pdf)

Women, Men, and the Changing Role of Gender in Immigration

Author: Jenna Knapp, Brianna Muller, and Alicia Quiros

Addresses gender roles in Latino families and the effect immigration, social networks, and labor markets have in shifting traditional gender roles. Explains spatial identities in traditional Mexican families and the division of me and women in the home. Notes the modernization of the Mexican household and increased female autonomy due to immigration. Draws from personal interviews and previous research on the topic.

Full Article (.pdf)

Gender

Oppositional Youth Sub-Culture and the Second Generation of Mexican Transmigrants

Author: Caroline Hawes

Addresses generational shifts in Latino communities in South Bend and the increase in oppositional youth sub-culture within second-generation Latino youth communities. Research comes from Pew Hispanic Trust data on 21st century Latino immigrants and their families. Explores reasons for the emergence of oppositional youth sub-cultures such as gangs, particularly among males. Includes interviews from members of the South Bend Latino community as well as staff and incarcerated youth at the South Bend Juvenile Correctional Facility. Findings include a resistance to education, social expectations, and an inclination toward violence and substance abuse as a result of as familial dysfunctions, high recidivism rates, poor education systems, and a variety of other structural disadvantages. Research suggests social services to provide youth with alternatives to violence and oppositional, resistant behavior.

Full Article (.pdf)

Healthcare

Involving Latino Parents in Education: Advocating for Children with Special Needs

Author: Carolyn Leary and Colin Parker

Examines the challenges of Latino children’s access to quality special education in the context of the broader racial educational achievement gap in South Bend and the country as a whole.  Based on participant observation and literature review.  Concludes that the solution lies in encouraging and supporting parental involvement in their children’s schools and promoting outreach to and advocacy for the Latino community. 

Full Article (.pdf)

Healthcare Access for Latinos in South Bend

Author: Erika Daley and Christine Hall

Describes the healthcare needs and obstacles to access facing Latinos nationally and in South Bend. Focuses on language and financial barriers to healthcare. Informs healthcare practitioners about some of Mexicans’ popular healthcare beliefs and practices.  Reports on culturally and linguistically sensitive diabetes outreach programs of two local hospitals.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants and the Paradox of Health Care in America

Author: Chelsea Lehman

Addresses healthcare access for Latinos in the United States in comparison to other ethnic groups. Looks at chronic health conditions and prevalence of certain diseases and the absence of others. Introduces the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and how it impacts undocumented and Latino families.  Uses research from UCLA Center for Health Policy and Pew Hispanic research.

Full Article (.pdf)

Orale! Food and Identity Amongst Latinos

Author: Ruben Saldaña, Jr., and George Felix

Looks at food as an indicator of culture and identity in Mexican households. Addresses common misconceptions pertaining to Latinos and Hispanics and the origins of various Mexican dishes. Relies on data from an open survey conducted via social media.

Full Article (.pdf)

Immigration and Transnationalism

Fitting IN: Assimilation Processess in South Bend

Author: Molly Sammon and Kyla Wargel

Examines how Mexicans and other Latinos adapt to living in South Bend through the discussion of various assimilation processes, in particular changing family, social, and gender roles. Analyzes immigrant youth and violence and various programs aimed at violence reduction and reformation. Provides an overview of Latinos participation in varying social settings such as church, medical, and education services.

Full Article (.pdf)

Generation: The Story of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Ashleigh Renteria and Vanessa Adjei

Focuses on the concept of immigrant generation as a way of examining transnationalism, assimilation and acculturation across first, second and third generation Mexicans.  Explores the relationship of generation to educational achievement, income, wealth, food culture and religious observance.

Full Article (.pdf)

Fictive Kinship and Acquaintance Networks as Sources of Support and Social Capital for Mexican Transmigrants in South Bend

Author: Erin Jelm

Grounded in extensive literature review and primary ethnographic research in the Mexican immigrant community. Explores the role of social networks as essential sources of support and generators of social capital for Latino immigrants as they adjust to life in the United States. Whereas in U.S. "American" culture, kinship is defined as biogenetic, Latino culture is characteristically more flexible with its interpretation. "Family" includes extended relatives and even close friends who are incorporated into the tightly knit kin network via fictive kinship relationships.

Full Article (.pdf)

Healthcare Access for Latinos in South Bend

Author: Erika Daley and Christine Hall

Describes the healthcare needs and obstacles to access facing Latinos nationally and in South Bend. Focuses on language and financial barriers to healthcare. Informs healthcare practitioners about some of Mexicans’ popular healthcare beliefs and practices.  Reports on culturally and linguistically sensitive diabetes outreach programs of two local hospitals.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Inmigrantes Latinos en South Bend

Author: Jenna Adsit, Emilie Prot, Kimberly Tavarez; Translated by Maria Moreno

Descripción demográfica de los inmigrantes latinos en South Bend utilizando datos de la American Community Survey (ACS) la Comunidad Estadounidense, entre otras fuentes, provee información sobre los patrones de migración interna y residenciales de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en esta área, los motivos por los cuales se mudaron y su distribución de edad, nacionalidad y fluidez económica. La información analizada corresponde al periodo entre los años 1990 y 2000, durante el cual la población de latinos aumentó a razón de 157%, mientras que la población afro-americana creció un 20% y la población caucásica se disminuyó por un 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants in South Bend

Author: Kimberly Tavarez, Jenna Adsit, and Emilie Prot

Demographic description of Latino immigrants in South Bend using data from the American Community Survey and other sources, covering history of Latino immigration into area, reasons for coming, place of origin, residential patterns, economic situation and age distribution.  Focuses on period 1990-2000 when the Latino population grew by 157%, the African-American population increased by 20% and the Caucasian population decreased by 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Ethnic Transitions between Poles and Mexicans

Author: Greg Podolej

Describes the history of Polish settlement in South Bend, the entrance of the Mexican community and the processes of ethnic transition.  Focuses on the transition in the St. Adalbert parish and the Central Bakery (la Panadería Central).  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants and the Paradox of Health Care in America

Author: Chelsea Lehman

Addresses healthcare access for Latinos in the United States in comparison to other ethnic groups. Looks at chronic health conditions and prevalence of certain diseases and the absence of others. Introduces the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and how it impacts undocumented and Latino families.  Uses research from UCLA Center for Health Policy and Pew Hispanic research.

Full Article (.pdf)

Mexican Gangs in South Bend

Author: Joey Leary and Sophia Cortez

Discusses relationship between cities, poverty and gangs nationally and in South Bend.  Discusses Mexican involvement in local gangs and themes of location, ethnic composition, motivation, popular media's influence and gang violence.  Reports on youth boxing programs and other measures to help local youth avoid gangs.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Oppositional Youth Sub-Culture and the Second Generation of Mexican Transmigrants

Author: Caroline Hawes

Addresses generational shifts in Latino communities in South Bend and the increase in oppositional youth sub-culture within second-generation Latino youth communities. Research comes from Pew Hispanic Trust data on 21st century Latino immigrants and their families. Explores reasons for the emergence of oppositional youth sub-cultures such as gangs, particularly among males. Includes interviews from members of the South Bend Latino community as well as staff and incarcerated youth at the South Bend Juvenile Correctional Facility. Findings include a resistance to education, social expectations, and an inclination toward violence and substance abuse as a result of as familial dysfunctions, high recidivism rates, poor education systems, and a variety of other structural disadvantages. Research suggests social services to provide youth with alternatives to violence and oppositional, resistant behavior.

Full Article (.pdf)

Realities of Immigration: Heterogeneous Status Families in South Bend

Author: Stephen Oliva and Victor Cruz, Jr.

Discusses varying documentation status within Latino families and the differing coping mechanisms within these heterogeneous families. Examines how political discourse is used to vilify immigrants. Presents various policy implications to the current immigrant reality and underscores these policies with personal undocumented immigrant narratives.

Full Article (.pdf)

State Immigration Policies

Author: Robert Burkett and William Cernanec

Provides a history of immigration law in the United States, beginning in the late 1800s and continuing to present day. Explains the prevalence of anti-immigrant sentiment in the US and the implications of SB 1070, Arizona’s anti-immigrant bill and similar bills in other states that followed.  Finds a negative impact on the economy and social relationships and an increased fear of law enforcement in immigrants.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Effects of Immigration on the Family

Author: Claire Podgorski and Carolyn Rumer

Explains how the arduous requirements to become an authorized immigrant in the United States, the huge backlog of immigrant petitions and the number of years it takes to complete the process deter many migrants from even applying.  Provides list of immigrant categories. Describes the empowering experiences of some who succeeded and went on to become naturalized citizens. Based on research in an immigration law office and participant observation and tutoring at a citizenship class.

Full Article (.pdf)

The Mexican Transnational Family Experience in South Bend

Author: Katharine Feeley and Erin Jelm

Looks at changing definitions of family within Latino families, including an erosion of gendered roles in Latino homes and a shift toward more traditional nuclear families separate from traditional Mexican tendencies to live among extended family members after marriage. Study is based on interviews with various immigrant couples from D.F., Mexico at La Casa de Amistad in South Bend, IN.  Findings indicate a strong focus on collectivism, respeto, and confianza among married couples in the U.S. Additional findings include a decrease in traditionally large Mexican families due to urbanization and a change in how children are raised in the United States in comparison to Mexico—including an emphasis on the individual, different types of discipline, and increased educational and socio-economic opportunities for children.

Full Article (.pdf)

Unseen Hands: The History of Migrant Workers

Author: Scott Coppa and Grace Girardot

Examines the hidden conditions of migrant farm work in around South Bend and Southwestern Michigan. Describes the history of farm work in the U.S., legislation governing farm labor, living conditions of migrant workers, and potential ways to improve the lives of farmworkers.

Full Article (.pdf)

Women, Men, and the Changing Role of Gender in Immigration

Author: Jenna Knapp, Brianna Muller, and Alicia Quiros

Addresses gender roles in Latino families and the effect immigration, social networks, and labor markets have in shifting traditional gender roles. Explains spatial identities in traditional Mexican families and the division of me and women in the home. Notes the modernization of the Mexican household and increased female autonomy due to immigration. Draws from personal interviews and previous research on the topic.

Full Article (.pdf)

Labor and the Economy

Generation: The Story of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Ashleigh Renteria and Vanessa Adjei

Focuses on the concept of immigrant generation as a way of examining transnationalism, assimilation and acculturation across first, second and third generation Mexicans.  Explores the relationship of generation to educational achievement, income, wealth, food culture and religious observance.

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Financial Literacy Among South Bend Latinos

Author: Mari Jose Sanchez and Kevin B. Marvinac

Describes Latinos’ basic knowledge and utilization of the financial system, perceptions of banking, savings and taking out loans, attitudes about incurring educational debt and gender roles in financial decision-making.  Based on a survey of adults in an ESL class and interviews with financial education teacher and banking staff.

Full Article (.pdf)

Inmigrantes Latinos en South Bend

Author: Jenna Adsit, Emilie Prot, Kimberly Tavarez; Translated by Maria Moreno

Descripción demográfica de los inmigrantes latinos en South Bend utilizando datos de la American Community Survey (ACS) la Comunidad Estadounidense, entre otras fuentes, provee información sobre los patrones de migración interna y residenciales de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en esta área, los motivos por los cuales se mudaron y su distribución de edad, nacionalidad y fluidez económica. La información analizada corresponde al periodo entre los años 1990 y 2000, durante el cual la población de latinos aumentó a razón de 157%, mientras que la población afro-americana creció un 20% y la población caucásica se disminuyó por un 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants in South Bend

Author: Kimberly Tavarez, Jenna Adsit, and Emilie Prot

Demographic description of Latino immigrants in South Bend using data from the American Community Survey and other sources, covering history of Latino immigration into area, reasons for coming, place of origin, residential patterns, economic situation and age distribution.  Focuses on period 1990-2000 when the Latino population grew by 157%, the African-American population increased by 20% and the Caucasian population decreased by 11%.

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Latino Employment and Entrepreneurship in South Bend

Author: Greg Podolej, Michael McKenna, Lindsay McQuaid, and Sarah Walorski

Describes the labor participation of Latinos in South Bend and the development of a Mexican economic enclave in the west side of South Bend in the wake of the departure of former Polish business owners and residents.  Shows how these businesses cater to and promote the transnational lives of Mexican immigrants.  Features the businesses Taquería Chicago, El Paraiso, Rosales, La Panadería Central, and La Rosita Paletería y Nevería.

Full Article (.pdf)

State Immigration Policies

Author: Robert Burkett and William Cernanec

Provides a history of immigration law in the United States, beginning in the late 1800s and continuing to present day. Explains the prevalence of anti-immigrant sentiment in the US and the implications of SB 1070, Arizona’s anti-immigrant bill and similar bills in other states that followed.  Finds a negative impact on the economy and social relationships and an increased fear of law enforcement in immigrants.

Full Article (.pdf)

Unseen Hands: The History of Migrant Workers

Author: Scott Coppa and Grace Girardot

Examines the hidden conditions of migrant farm work in around South Bend and Southwestern Michigan. Describes the history of farm work in the U.S., legislation governing farm labor, living conditions of migrant workers, and potential ways to improve the lives of farmworkers.

Full Article (.pdf)

Regional Research

Fitting IN: Assimilation Processess in South Bend

Author: Molly Sammon and Kyla Wargel

Examines how Mexicans and other Latinos adapt to living in South Bend through the discussion of various assimilation processes, in particular changing family, social, and gender roles. Analyzes immigrant youth and violence and various programs aimed at violence reduction and reformation. Provides an overview of Latinos participation in varying social settings such as church, medical, and education services.

Full Article (.pdf)

Generation: The Story of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Ashleigh Renteria and Vanessa Adjei

Focuses on the concept of immigrant generation as a way of examining transnationalism, assimilation and acculturation across first, second and third generation Mexicans.  Explores the relationship of generation to educational achievement, income, wealth, food culture and religious observance.

Full Article (.pdf)

Financial Literacy Among South Bend Latinos

Author: Mari Jose Sanchez and Kevin B. Marvinac

Describes Latinos’ basic knowledge and utilization of the financial system, perceptions of banking, savings and taking out loans, attitudes about incurring educational debt and gender roles in financial decision-making.  Based on a survey of adults in an ESL class and interviews with financial education teacher and banking staff.

Full Article (.pdf)

Healthcare Access for Latinos in South Bend

Author: Erika Daley and Christine Hall

Describes the healthcare needs and obstacles to access facing Latinos nationally and in South Bend. Focuses on language and financial barriers to healthcare. Informs healthcare practitioners about some of Mexicans’ popular healthcare beliefs and practices.  Reports on culturally and linguistically sensitive diabetes outreach programs of two local hospitals.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Inmigrantes Latinos en South Bend

Author: Jenna Adsit, Emilie Prot, Kimberly Tavarez; Translated by Maria Moreno

Descripción demográfica de los inmigrantes latinos en South Bend utilizando datos de la American Community Survey (ACS) la Comunidad Estadounidense, entre otras fuentes, provee información sobre los patrones de migración interna y residenciales de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en esta área, los motivos por los cuales se mudaron y su distribución de edad, nacionalidad y fluidez económica. La información analizada corresponde al periodo entre los años 1990 y 2000, durante el cual la población de latinos aumentó a razón de 157%, mientras que la población afro-americana creció un 20% y la población caucásica se disminuyó por un 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants in South Bend

Author: Kimberly Tavarez, Jenna Adsit, and Emilie Prot

Demographic description of Latino immigrants in South Bend using data from the American Community Survey and other sources, covering history of Latino immigration into area, reasons for coming, place of origin, residential patterns, economic situation and age distribution.  Focuses on period 1990-2000 when the Latino population grew by 157%, the African-American population increased by 20% and the Caucasian population decreased by 11%.

Full Article (.pdf)

Adolescence: A Look into Mexican-American South Bend & Mexican-American Youth

Author: Ruby Amezquita and Jonathan Lopez

Shows how Mexican immigrants encounter a new cultural construct of adolescence in the United States.  Examines how conflicting inter-generational cultural experiences affect adolescence among Mexican-American youth in South Bend.  Features interviews with young females preparing for and experiencing quinceañera and young males going through a defacto masculine rite of passage into gangs.

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Language and Identity of Latinos in South Bend

Author: Hector Avitia and Fatima Monterrubio

Examines speech behavior, language ideology and bilingualism in South Bend in the context of theories of linguistic assimilation, bilingualism, nationalism and language policies in the United States.  Analyzes results of a language survey completed by Latino youth, which reveals values and ideologies of English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Employment and Entrepreneurship in South Bend

Author: Greg Podolej, Michael McKenna, Lindsay McQuaid, and Sarah Walorski

Describes the labor participation of Latinos in South Bend and the development of a Mexican economic enclave in the west side of South Bend in the wake of the departure of former Polish business owners and residents.  Shows how these businesses cater to and promote the transnational lives of Mexican immigrants.  Features the businesses Taquería Chicago, El Paraiso, Rosales, La Panadería Central, and La Rosita Paletería y Nevería.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Immigrants and the Paradox of Health Care in America

Author: Chelsea Lehman

Addresses healthcare access for Latinos in the United States in comparison to other ethnic groups. Looks at chronic health conditions and prevalence of certain diseases and the absence of others. Introduces the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and how it impacts undocumented and Latino families.  Uses research from UCLA Center for Health Policy and Pew Hispanic research.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Religions in South Bend

Author: Emilie Prot, Stephanie Brauer, Elizabeth Ferrufino, and Jennifer Towey

Describes Latino religious affiliation, worship, and practices in South Bend in comparison to national trends and processes.  Provides map of local churches where Latinos, particularly Mexicans, worship.  Describes programs for youth, quinceañera rituals, spirituality, veneration of Guadalupe, the rise in conversions to Protestantism and the nature of their congregations.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Mexican Gangs in South Bend

Author: Joey Leary and Sophia Cortez

Discusses relationship between cities, poverty and gangs nationally and in South Bend.  Discusses Mexican involvement in local gangs and themes of location, ethnic composition, motivation, popular media's influence and gang violence.  Reports on youth boxing programs and other measures to help local youth avoid gangs.  In English and Spanish.

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Political Participation and Civic Engagement Among Latinos in South Bend

Author: Heidi Eckstein

Study of how Mexican immigrants in South Bend participate politically, either in the United States or Mexico or both. Seeks to fill a gap in the current knowledge base while providing a different viewpoint on their assimilation and transnational behavior. Adding a political dimension to current research is a step towards a more holistic picture of the Mexican community in South Bend. Actions in the political sphere provide an additional framework to describe and measure both assimilation into American life and transnational identification with home communities. Whether or not immigrants seek U.S. or dual citizenship, what they expect from politicians, how they participate in Mexican politics and what they know about American politics are all indicators of both how they are assimilating and how they retain ties with Mexico.

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Realities of Immigration: Heterogeneous Status Families in South Bend

Author: Stephen Oliva and Victor Cruz, Jr.

Discusses varying documentation status within Latino families and the differing coping mechanisms within these heterogeneous families. Examines how political discourse is used to vilify immigrants. Presents various policy implications to the current immigrant reality and underscores these policies with personal undocumented immigrant narratives.

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Religion, Identity, and Latino Youth in South Bend

Author: John VanBerkum and Katie Hamel

Looks at religious identity among South Bend youth and shifting trends among young Catholics in the city. Provides historical background on local parishes, including St. Adalbert—a predominantly Latino parish and how it can better work to serve its youth.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religiones Latinas en South Bend

Author: Stephanie Beauer, Elizabeth Ferrufino, Emilie Prot, Jennifer Towey; Translated by Maria Moreno

Describe las tendencias en la afiliación religiosa, las ceremonias de alabanza y las prácticas de los Latinos en South Bend, en comparación a aquellas de los procesos nacionales. Proporciona un mapa de las iglesias locales donde los latinos, particularmente los mexicanos, rinden culto. Abarca los temas de los programas dirigidos a la juventud, las ceremonias de quinceañera, la espiritualidad, la veneración de la virgen de Guadalupe y el aumento en la tasa de latinos que se convierten al Protestantismo y cómo se congregan para rendir culto. En Inglés y Español.

Full Article (.pdf)

State Immigration Policies

Author: Robert Burkett and William Cernanec

Provides a history of immigration law in the United States, beginning in the late 1800s and continuing to present day. Explains the prevalence of anti-immigrant sentiment in the US and the implications of SB 1070, Arizona’s anti-immigrant bill and similar bills in other states that followed.  Finds a negative impact on the economy and social relationships and an increased fear of law enforcement in immigrants.

Full Article (.pdf)

Success of Latino High School Students in South Bend

Author: Madeline Basil and Enrique Lorenzo

Explores the success of Latino students at Catholic high schools in South Bend to address concerns among Latino parishes. Looks at complex factors that influence education, including parent involvement, mentoring, community violence, and other factors. Recommends changes in curriculum and school policies to aid Latino communities and increase parental involvement.

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The Effects of Immigration on the Family

Author: Claire Podgorski and Carolyn Rumer

Explains how the arduous requirements to become an authorized immigrant in the United States, the huge backlog of immigrant petitions and the number of years it takes to complete the process deter many migrants from even applying.  Provides list of immigrant categories. Describes the empowering experiences of some who succeeded and went on to become naturalized citizens. Based on research in an immigration law office and participant observation and tutoring at a citizenship class.

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The Mexican Transnational Family Experience in South Bend

Author: Katharine Feeley and Erin Jelm

Looks at changing definitions of family within Latino families, including an erosion of gendered roles in Latino homes and a shift toward more traditional nuclear families separate from traditional Mexican tendencies to live among extended family members after marriage. Study is based on interviews with various immigrant couples from D.F., Mexico at La Casa de Amistad in South Bend, IN.  Findings indicate a strong focus on collectivism, respeto, and confianza among married couples in the U.S. Additional findings include a decrease in traditionally large Mexican families due to urbanization and a change in how children are raised in the United States in comparison to Mexico—including an emphasis on the individual, different types of discipline, and increased educational and socio-economic opportunities for children.

Full Article (.pdf)

Unseen Hands: The History of Migrant Workers

Author: Scott Coppa and Grace Girardot

Examines the hidden conditions of migrant farm work in around South Bend and Southwestern Michigan. Describes the history of farm work in the U.S., legislation governing farm labor, living conditions of migrant workers, and potential ways to improve the lives of farmworkers.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religion

Generation: The Story of Mexican Immigrants

Author: Ashleigh Renteria and Vanessa Adjei

Focuses on the concept of immigrant generation as a way of examining transnationalism, assimilation and acculturation across first, second and third generation Mexicans.  Explores the relationship of generation to educational achievement, income, wealth, food culture and religious observance.

Full Article (.pdf)

Ethnic Transitions between Poles and Mexicans

Author: Greg Podolej

Describes the history of Polish settlement in South Bend, the entrance of the Mexican community and the processes of ethnic transition.  Focuses on the transition in the St. Adalbert parish and the Central Bakery (la Panadería Central).  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Catholicism, Higher Education, and the CSC

Author: Robert Rienzo and Grace Parsons

Explores the existence of Latinos in higher education over the last few decades. Focuses on the relationship between Notre Dame, Latinos on campus, and its surrounding Latino population and on campus. Recommends changes in University policy to better serve Latino communities.

Full Article (.pdf)

Latino Religions in South Bend

Author: Emilie Prot, Stephanie Brauer, Elizabeth Ferrufino, and Jennifer Towey

Describes Latino religious affiliation, worship, and practices in South Bend in comparison to national trends and processes.  Provides map of local churches where Latinos, particularly Mexicans, worship.  Describes programs for youth, quinceañera rituals, spirituality, veneration of Guadalupe, the rise in conversions to Protestantism and the nature of their congregations.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Mexican Gangs in South Bend

Author: Joey Leary and Sophia Cortez

Discusses relationship between cities, poverty and gangs nationally and in South Bend.  Discusses Mexican involvement in local gangs and themes of location, ethnic composition, motivation, popular media's influence and gang violence.  Reports on youth boxing programs and other measures to help local youth avoid gangs.  In English and Spanish.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religion, Identity, and Latino Youth in South Bend

Author: John VanBerkum and Katie Hamel

Looks at religious identity among South Bend youth and shifting trends among young Catholics in the city. Provides historical background on local parishes, including St. Adalbert—a predominantly Latino parish and how it can better work to serve its youth.

Full Article (.pdf)

Religiones Latinas en South Bend

Author: Stephanie Beauer, Elizabeth Ferrufino, Emilie Prot, Jennifer Towey; Translated by Maria Moreno

Describe las tendencias en la afiliación religiosa, las ceremonias de alabanza y las prácticas de los Latinos en South Bend, en comparación a aquellas de los procesos nacionales. Proporciona un mapa de las iglesias locales donde los latinos, particularmente los mexicanos, rinden culto. Abarca los temas de los programas dirigidos a la juventud, las ceremonias de quinceañera, la espiritualidad, la veneración de la virgen de Guadalupe y el aumento en la tasa de latinos que se convierten al Protestantismo y cómo se congregan para rendir culto. En Inglés y Español.

Full Article (.pdf)